DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES OF SHADING
There are multiple ways to make an image you drew look defined with just your pencil rather than with markers, colored pencils, crayons, or paint. Some of the ways you can do this are by using some of these shading techniques: sketching, stippling, crosshatching. Depending on which of these techniques you choose, your image will appear more or less realistic. For example, the sketching technique is used by making a rough version of the image you want. The stippling technique, also known as pointillism, is done by making spots that are closer together or farther apart to create a different look. The crosshatching technique is performed by making small lines, similar to dashes, which alternate in a criss-cross like pattern.
If you want to use different types of shading, you can always try smooth, slinky, circulism, or contour techniques. The smooth shading technique is completed by using very soft strokes with a consistent amount of pressure. The slinky shading technique is done with very fast back and forth motions with your pencil. The circulism technique is done by making small circles, making smaller circles creates a darker shade while making larger circles creates a lighter shade. The final technique you could use is contour; contouring is shading that follows a line, or the lines of the shape of your particular image.
Along with these techniques you could use to shade your image, you might need some tools to help you do so. Some of the tools that could help are the different number pencils, such as 2B, 4B, 6B, 2H, and 4H, which helps indicate the difference level of hardness or softness. The harder pencils are marked with “H,” which shade more lightly. The softer pencils are marked with “B,” which is darker for shading. The larger the number, the softer the pencils lead is. The difference in the shading can make a world of difference in your drawing.
All research for this article was taken from: https://blog.udemy.com/pencil-shading-techniques/
Tutorials to help you learn how to do these techniques: